Note to Readers

The list of peer-reviewed articles provided below is incomplete. Please contact us at if you know of additional papers that might be added to this collection.

Schumaker NH, Watkins SM. 2021. Adding Space to Disease Models: A Case Study with COVID-19 in Oregon, USA. Land 10, no. 4: 438.

Andersen D, Yoonjung Y, Borzee A, Kyungmin K, Kwang-Seon M, Jeong-Jin K, Tae-Wook K, Yikweon J. Use of a spatially explicit individual-based model to predict population trajectories and habitat connectivity for a reintroduced ursid. Oryx,

Penteado HM. 2020. Urban open spaces from a dispersal perspective: lessons from an individual-based model approach to assess the effects of landscape patterns on the viability of wildlife populations. Urban Ecosystems,

Snyder MN, Schumaker NH, Dunham JB, Keefer ML, Leinenbach P, Brookes A, Palmer J, Wu J, Keenan D, Ebersole JL. 2020. Assessing contributions of cold-water refuges to reproductive migration corridor conditions for adult salmon and steelhead trout in the Columbia River, USA, Journal of Ecohydraulics,

Pacioni C, Ramsey DSL, Schumaker NH, Kreplins T, Kennedy MS. 2020. A novel modelling framework to explicitly simulate predator interaction with poison baits. Wildlife Research,

Ward EM, Wysong K, Gorelick SM. 2019. Drying landscape and interannual herbivory-driven habitat degradation control semiaquatic mammal population dynamics. Ecohydrology,

Barbosa P, Schumaker NH, Brandon KR, Bager A, Grilo C. 2019. Simulating the consequences of roads for wildlife population dynamics. Landscape and Urban Planning,

Nogeire-McRae T, Lawler JJ, Schumaker NH, Cypher BL, Phillips SE. 2019. Land use change and rodenticide exposure trump climate change as the biggest stressors to San Joaquin kit fox. PLoS ONE 14(6): e0214297.

Snyder MN, Schumaker NH, Ebersole JL, Dunham JB, Comeleo RL, Keefer ML, Leinenbach P, Brookes A, Cope B, Wu J, Palmer J, Keenan D. 2019. Individual based modeling of fish migration in a 2-D river system: model description and case study. Landscape Ecology 34:737-754.

Heinrichs JA, O'Donnell MS, Aldridge CL, Garman SL, Homer CG. 2019. Influences of potential oil and gas development and future climate on Sage-grouse declines and redistribution. Ecological Applications (currently online only).

Heinrichs JA, Lawler JJ, Schumaker NH, Walker L, Cimprich D, Bleisch A. 2019. Assessing source-sink stability in the context of management and land-use change. Landscape Ecology 34:259-274.

Heinrichs JA, McKinnon DT, Aldridge CL, Moehrenschlager A. 2019. Optimizing the use of endangered species in multi-population collection, captive breeding and release programs. Global Ecology and Conservation 17.

Dunk JR, Woodbridge B, Schumaker NH, Glenn EM, White B, LaPlante DW, et al. 2019. Conservation planning for species recovery under the Endangered Species Act: A case study with the Northern Spotted Owl. PLoS ONE 14(1): e0210643.

Schumaker NH, Brookes A. 2018. HexSim: a modeling environment for ecology and conservation. Landscape Ecology 33:197-211.

Heinrichs JA, Lawler JJ, Schumaker NH, Wilsey CB, Monroe KC, Aldridge CL. 2018. A multispecies test of source.sink indicators to prioritize habitat for declining populations. Conservation Biology 32:648-659.

Heinrichs JA, Aldridge CL, Gummer DL, Monroe AP, Schumaker NH. 2018. Prioritizing actions for the recovery of endangered species: Emergent insights from Greater Sage-grouse simulation modeling. Biological Conservation 218:134-143.

Pacioni C, Kennedy MS, Berry O, Stephens D, Schumaker NH. 2018. Spatially-explicit model for assessing wild dog control strategies in Western Australia. Ecological Modelling:368:246-256.

Lyons AL, Gains WL, Singleton PH, Kasworm WF, Proctor MF, Begley J. 2018. Spatially explicit carrying capacity estimates to inform species specific recovery objectives: Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) recovery in the North Cascades Biological Conservation 222, 21-32.

Heinrichs JA, Aldridge CL, O’Donnell M, Schumaker NH. 2017. Using dynamic population simulations to extend resource selection analysis and prioritize habitat for conservation. Ecological Modelling 359:449-459.

Wiens JD, Schumaker NH, Inman RD, Esque TC, Longshore KM, Nussear KE. 2017. Spatial demographic models to inform conservation planning of Golden Eagles in renewable energy landscapes. Journal of Raptor Research 51:234-257.

McCauley LA, Ribic CA, Pomara LY, Zuckerberg B. 2017. The future demographic niche of a declining grassland bird fails to shift poleward in response to climate change. Landscape Ecology 32:807-821.

Bancroft BA, Lawler, JJ, Schumaker NH. 2016. Weighing the relative potential impacts of climate change and land-use change on an endangered bird. Ecology and Evolution 6:4468-4477.

Heinrichs JA, Lawler JJ, Schumaker NH. 2016. Intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of source-sink dynamics. Ecology and Evolution 6:892-904.

Heinrichs JA, Bender DJ, Schumaker NH. 2016. Habitat degradation and loss as key drivers of regional population extinction. Ecological Modelling 335:64-73.

Tuma MW, Millington C, Schumaker NH, Burnett P. 2016. Modeling Agassiz’s desert tortoise population response to anthropogenic stressors. Journal of Wildlife Management 80:414-429.

Nogeire TM, Lawler JJ, Schumaker NH, Cypher BL, Phillips SE. 2015. Land Use as a Driver of Patterns of Rodenticide Exposure in Modeled Kit Fox Populations. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0133351.

Heinrichs JA, Bender DJ, Gummer DL, Schumaker NH. 2015. Effects of landscape and patch-level attributes on regional population persistence. Journal for Nature Conservation 26:56–64.

Heinrichs JA, Lawler JJ, Schumaker NH, Wilsey CB, Bender DJ. 2015. Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence. Conservation Biology 29:1674-1683.

Marcot BG, Singleton PH, Schumaker NH. 2015. Analysis of sensitivity and uncertainty in an individual-based model of a threatened wildlife species. Natural Resource Modeling 28:37-58.

Lurgi M, Brook BW, Saltré F, Fordham DA. 2015. Modelling range dynamics under global change: which framework and why? Methods in Ecology and Evolution 6:247-256.

Pomara LY, Ledee OE, Martin KJ, Zuckerberg B. 2014. Demographic consequences of climate change and land cover help explain a history of extirpations and range contraction in a declining snake species. Global Change Biology 20:2087-2099.

Zang H, Gorelick SM. 2014. Coupled impacts of sea-level rise and tidal marsh restoration on endangered California clapper rail. Biological Conservation 172:89-100.

Fordham DA, Shoemaker KT, Schumaker NH, Akcakaya HR, Clisby N, Brook BW. 2014. How interactions between animal movement and landscape processes modify local range dynamics and extinction risk. Biol. Lett. 10: 20140198.

Schumaker NH, Brookes A, Dunk JR, Woodbridge B, Heinrichs J, Lawler JJ, Carroll C, and LaPlante D. 2014. Mapping sources, sinks, and connectivity using a simulation model of northern spotted owls. Landscape Ecology 29:579-592.

Huber PR, Greco SE, Schumaker NH, Hobbs J. 2014. A priori assessment of reintroduction strategies for a native ungulate: using HexSim to guide release site selection. Landscape Ecology 29:689-701.

Wilsey CB, Lawler JJ, Cimprich D, and Schumaker NH. 2014. Dependence of the endangered black-capped vireo on sustained cowbird management. Conservation Biology 28:561-571.

Marcot BG, Raphael MG, Schumaker NH, and Galleher B. 2013. How big and how close? Habitat patch size and spacing to conserve a threatened species. Natural Resources Modeling 26:194-214.

Carroll C, McRae B, Brookes A. 2012. Use of linkage mapping and centrality analysis across habitat gradients to conserve connectivity of gray wolf populations in western North America. Conservation Biology 26:78-87.

Stronen AV, Schumaker NH, Forbes GJ, Paquet, PC, and Brook RK. 2012. Landscape resistance to dispersal: simulating long-term effects of human disturbance on a small and isolated wolf population in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184:6923-6934.

Fulford RS, Peterson MS, Grammer PO. 2011. An ecological model of the habitat mosaic in estuarine nursery areas: Part I — Interaction of dispersal theory and habitat variability in describing juvenile fish distributions. Ecological Modelling 222:3202-3215.

Scheller RM, Spencer WD, Rustigian-Romsos H, Syphard AD, Ward BC, Strittholt JR. 2011. Using stochastic simulation to evaluate competing risks of wildfires and fuels management on an isolated forest carnivore. Landscape Ecology 26:1491-1504.

Heinrichs JA, Bender DJ, Gummer DL, and Schumaker NH. 2010. Assessing critical habitat: Evaluating the relative contribution of habitats to population persistence. Biological Conservation 143:2229-2237.

The Papers Below Cite HexSim's Predecessor: PATCH

Franklin J. 2010. Moving beyond static species distribution models in support of conservation biogeography. Diversity and Distributions 16:321-330.

McRae B, Schumaker NH, McKane RB, Busing RT, Solomon AM, Burdick CA. 2008. A multi-model framework for simulating wildlife population response to land use and climate change. Ecological Modelling 219:77-91.

Naujokaitis-Lewis IR, Curtis JM, Arcese P, Rosenfeld J. 2008. Sensitivity analysis of spatial population viability analysis models for species at risk and habitat conservation planning. Conservation Biology 23:225-229.

Carroll C. 2007. Interacting Effects of Climate Change, Landscape Conversion, and Harvest on Carnivore Populations at the Range Margin: Marten and Lynx in the Northern Appalachians. Conservation Biology 21:1092-1104

Carroll C, Phillips MK, Lopez-Gonzalez CA, Schumaker NH. 2006. Defining recovery goals and strategies for endangered species: The wolf as a case study. Bioscience 56:25-37.

Carroll C, Miquelle DG. 2006. Spatial viability analysis of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica in the Russian Far East: the role of protected areas and landscape matrix in population persistence. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:1056-1068.

Jager HI, King AW, Schumaker NH, Ashwood TL, Jackson BL. 2005. Spatial uncertainty analysis of population models. Ecological Modeling 185:13-27.

Carroll C, Noss RF, Paquet PC, Schumaker NH. 2004. Extinction debt of protected areas in developing landscapes. Conservation Biology 18:1110-1120.

Lawler JJ, Schumaker NH. 2004. Evaluating habitat as a surrogate for population viability using a spatially explicit population model. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94:85-100.

Schumaker NH, Ernst T, White D, Baker J, Haggerty P. 2004. Projecting wildlife responses to alternative future landscapes in Oregon’s Willamette Basin. Ecological Applications 14:381-400.

Carroll C, Noss RF, Paquet PC, Schumaker NH. 2003. Use of population viability analysis and reserve selection algorithms in regional conservation plans. Ecological Applications 13:1773-1789.

Carroll C, Phillips MK, Schumaker NH, Smith DW. 2003. Impacts of landscape change on wolf restoration success: Planning a reintroduction program using static and dynamic spatial models. Conservation Biology 17:536-548.

Rustigian HL, Santelmann MV, Schumaker NH. 2003. Assessing the potential impacts of alternative landscape designs on amphibian population dynamics. Landscape Ecology 18:65-81.

Regan HM, Akcakaya HR, Ferson S, Root KV, Carroll S, Ginzburg LR. 2003. Treatments of uncertainty and variability in ecological risk assessment of single-species populations. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 9:889-906.

Richards WH, Wallin WO, Schumaker NH. 2002. An analysis of late-seral forest connectivity in western Oregon. Conservation Biology 16:1409-1421.

Acosta CA, Perry SA. 2002. Spatially explicit population responses of crayfish Procambarus alleni to potential shifts in vegetation distribution in the marl marshes of Everglades National Park, USA. Hydrobiologia 477:221-230.

Schumaker NH. 1996. Using landscape indices to predict habitat connectivity. Ecology 77:1210-1225.